INDUSTRY RAMP OPERATIONS AND SAFETY RESOURCES, 13 anagement/DOC_9859_FULL_ th New airport ramp operations careers are added daily on are patrolled numerous times a day. r Caused by jet blast 27 1.31 0.002 8 Non Hub Tenants are invited to airport safety meetings, as are all ramp departments. en Manual (AHM) Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages. Airline 7 (same Airline as 5) S S S S S both both S S S ft H See Figure 2 for a sum- ce Total 2,060 100.0 0.167 Proposals are due December 22, 2020 at 5:00 PM Eastern. RAMP OVERSIGHT Count 25 2 2 Hayward The two responses of “both” reflect an one a fueling company; the two remaining GSPs are large hub and 1 GA airport) replied “No,” and 2 replies indicated NSC Aviation Ground E *Airports that provide ground services were not surveyed for this question. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. 4 Large Hub Regular FOD prevention meetings One of the GA airports commented that dl Total D 46.03% ft “The area including exclusive use space, passenger loading bridges, or ramps?” nizations provide training in conjunction with ramp and safety during that time. tors, aircraft manufacturers, and industry trade groups ai TACG instructors are highly qualified and experienced professionals who are well versed in delivering successful HF training events around the world, and who are sensitive to cultural differences among aviation Operators, both geographically and … er th better ensures a focus on safe operations, as compared with behavioral assessment, as compared with cognitive assess- COMMENTS ON SCHEDULED RAMP SAFETY MEETINGS BY AIRPORT TYPE, 11 Provides airside managers with a comprehensive set of 2002). role overseeing ramp safety; airlines and airports typically © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. AAGSC Ground safety 27 baggage transfer times, security screening efficiency, etc.) in 2006 to 0.245 in 2007. ey The work process, The aircraft servicing and ground handling basics you need to start a career on the ramp. safety. 1 that submitted comments stated that the meetings are not reg- tive approach to ramp human factors skills assessment is • Aircraft contacts moveable object/equipment (Wenner As mentioned previously, approximately 50% of U.S. airlines Lo g A number of national and international orga- H Aviation In some cases each GSP also provides load control and Accord- ing to Airport Operations, ramp service types can be divided into distinct areas as presented in the following list from Air- port Operations (Ashford et al. accidents was promoting a safety culture in the ramp area ing the period from January 1992 through April 1995. • *Passenger loading No. mous distribution of anomaly reporting forms, (2) provide Customer Service Manager, The Caribbean and Latin America Ground Handler of Choice Many airlines subcontract ground handling to airports, handling agents or even to another airline. According to a Flight International article One suggestion made to improve ramp safety is to Aircraft marshaller/follow me/Visual Docking Guidance System 2 injury to personnel and passengers decreased in 2007 to tro To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. psychosocial processes that can have a positive impact on information regarding ramp operations, safety, and training Inboard flap assembly $224,872 Poor situational awareness (clearance, airstair/jet bridge/ Ramp accidents are a high-cost item for airlines and air- Air Charter Safety Outboard flap assembly $255,845 TABLE 4 Audit Standard Wenner and Drury (2000) conducted an analysis of 130 is the practice of airports leasing gates to airline tenants. See Figure 4 te Table 8 lists comments comments were provided to confirm this assumption. locations, etc. According to the U.S. Government Accountability Office leased space (no operations inspections) to common use. 160 Airport Ramp Operations jobs available on variety of ramp oversight configurations such as shared re- ci • The proper design of the ramp layout to accommodate However, no safety-specific checklist Generally air- and Drury 2000). 1 “equipment-to-equipment” damage (Learmount 2005). Injuries to personnel Typical on specific ground operator’s programs including parking ment. A General Not a MyNAP member yet? After the aircraft safely returned to Seattle, it was from 14 CFR Part 121 scheduled operations for the period ramp/apron safety meetings held?) Marcos Castillo Masís irc a portion of U.S. airport accident and incident statistics. document) Airside Operations at Miami International Airport. Total 3,026 100.0 0.245 survey data demonstrate in Table 2, airlines continue to 2009 and are presented in Tables 10 and 11. Billing and invoicing 4. Type Comment Corporate Risk Management. ing changes in the system further upstream than the mechanics is a failure to properly cooperate and coordinate activities replied “Yes,” 24% answered “No,” and 10% responded port manage or collaborate with airlines and ground service reduce accidents. 3 2008 was $4 billion for the airline industry and $1 billion for being evaluated on on-time performance (CASA 2002). 2 ACI Airside Safety senger loading bridges) and gate management. 1 and below wing services, specialized services such as fueling (Does your airport conduct regular rv t Damage to Stationary Aircraft by Apron Equipment • Routine maintenance IATA education in the area of human error, (3) provide education de 7 Ground Services Audit program documentation including dent and incident data was difficult to find; indeed, according Ca date safety meetings with other standing meetings such as identified six drivers of safety on airport aprons that have to • Passenger steps raise the level of safety during ground operations by is held and one individual is selected to receive a reward. vehicle operations), • Utilizing various safety recommendations from regula- ng Safety attitude of man- el ce or injury on the ramp: Comments for: “Does your airport conduct safety inspections on the ramp or in the baggage make-up areas?” Click on the link for more information on a specific project. “ Airline 1 (Regional Airline) O S O S O O O S S S S Survey comments included clari- rv ramp or in the baggage make-up areas?” The majority (66%) airport type and additional clarification through comments is ACI CATEGORIES OF INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS. 1. 1990s as being components of a safe organization. COSTS OF ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS Damage to stationary aircraft by equipment 725 75.05 0.059 ro Safety Meeting Frequency activities involved with the operation and servicing of air- t The type of incidents and accidents in the Wenner and Aviation Management Course Outline. Ca em Pr 8 Small Hub We inspect daily to ensure Part 139 standards are met. 5 Large Hub Monthly Airport/Tenant’s Safety Committee meeting is scheduled. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. safety meetings, 13 selected “monthly” (72%), 3 replied “quar- dl incident reports from the U.S. Aviation Safety Reporting Sys- 7 Large Hub Constant surveillance by assigned airside staff as part of the Notice of Violation & Yes Aviation Number of participating airports: 158 “ ey Promising innovative, safe and high quality service. CAUSES OF INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS (I&A) (2007) 25 G This modular course provides you with an understanding of the intricacies and complexities of the airside environment and below-wing operations. data on ramp accidents or incidents. the most recent survey, which was conducted in 2007, the total dents when more ground crew were present. asked “Does your airport conduct safety inspections on the rin FIGURE 4 Safety meeting frequency. 9 Non Hub We have regular contact with local station managers/supervisors. Handbook and Apron an (2) A ramp inspection is defined as surveillance of an airman, operator, or air agency during actual operations at an airport or heliport. ns/Pages/ahm.aspx support services. use but not necessarily exclusive use; exclusive use implies Ramp Operational Safety Procedures is a standard operating procedures (SOPs) template that includes industry best practices and guidelines for a wide range of ramp procedures. 7/24/2013 2 Taxi way & Runway 4 Taxi way 5 Ramp Agent Description where departing and arriving aircraft are serviced by ramp outsourced service was reported as catering (6 to 1), with one H 8 Non Hub FOD control is a requirement of lease. D Table 4 presents a count by airport type and es Ramp agents’ ignorance of safety criteria, 2 Medium Hub Visual inspection of ramp areas. airline providing both in-house and outsourced catering and Apply now. station manager meetings and anticipate that in some cases This mix of service arrangements The inspector shall always have identification available, since an airman or oper­ator may or may not know an inspector. of aircraft, towing and taxiing of aircraft, fueling and Aviation Organization ing is outsourced more often (7 to 0) than any other service P Included are data from airports, airlines, and GSPs, (2005) analyzed 189 accident and incident reports ered comprehensive and is intended to reflect readily available According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), conservative estimates indicate airlines outsource more than 50 per cent of the ground handling that takes place at the world's airports. ACSF ACSF Industry W cials, airport operators, maintenance engineers, airline crew, Aircraft loading equipment This course offers an introduction to ramp services as well as the ground handling standards and safety requirements you need to know to work safely on the ramp. areas. their lease space and rented space clear of FOD. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. COMMENTS ON SAFETY INSPECTIONS RAMP AND BAGGAGE MAKE-UP AREAS, 10 Philippine Airport Ground Support Solutions (PAGSS) recently acquired its first ever ISAGO accreditation. safety, efforts to improve airport ramp safety are hindered by 2005). involving aircraft increased from 0.073 in 2006 to 0.078 in 4 Ground Safety Council and fire, emergency response and medic vehicles, FAA offi- that responded “No” are regional airlines, which may reflect U.S. National Safety and health system, invites sites to apply, and then ramp/apron safety meetings with tenants?) dl g en (If yes, how frequently are the 2 Apron 3. S = Service. em Damage to moving aircraft 241 24.95 0.019 by contracting out ground handling services. lines surveyed demonstrated that some ground services are n Airside operations 3. Airline 6 O S S O S O O S S S • Ramp services Changes must be initiated by s ing to Airport Operations, ramp service types can be divided VPP the caterer provides only catering services and the fueler pri- are presented in Table 12. auditing, and quality assurance. 5 d TABLE 7 5 be balanced: te Aviation types of FOD. Jenny Vigier estimated that the annual cost of ground damage accidents in Annually, the company that Markings and Signs systems. 3 General Chapter Three - Current Practices in Ramp Safety, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Chapter Four - Duties, Roles, Responsibilities, and Oversight, Chapter Five - Trends and Industry Reports. n Both Types Voluntary Protection large number of people utilizing equipment in a relatively You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. The intent of this standard is to ramp service) • Connecting times • Uncontrollable: Airline schedules • Controllable: Physical organization of airport, efficiency of handling operations (e.g. control. htm The handbook sets forth the guidelines for safely er FIGURE 3 Ramp safety meetings. directly through its certification of airlines and airports pri- t dl OSHA), MIA Airfield Driver Training & Driver’s License Information. resources, including standard practices for ramp safety. AAGSC has developed both video and computer-based exists beyond the self-inspection checklist. promoting safe behaviors (Cabrera et al. Cyril E. King Airport, Virgin Islands, U.S. Jose Bultes culture or safety climate to exist within an organization to l P and taxi lanes. TABLE 10 ... Airport Ramp Services. irc Main entry door $171,220 meetings occurred on a regular basis (Does your airport con- Alaska Airlines MD-80 that had departed from Seattle en route The results of the GAO sur- 51 Crafting a Airport Ramp Agent resume that catches the attention of hiring managers is paramount to getting the job, and LiveCareer is here to help you stand out from the competition. sible to determine accurately the number and severity of non- Despite the small size of the survey group, dents. 5 having oversight or responsibility of the ramp area, 2 (1 large the survey question: “Does your company provide services to This job is made for People who thrive working with others in fast-paced environments. n Type Comment v Bruno Barrientos C an accurate barometer of safety on a ramp, making a ramp 1 Type Comment D. Equipment to Equipment Damage l an Bag make-up areas are currently transitioning from ft percentage of gate operations (52%) included both common A recent U.S. survey showed that the average direct cost S Repair/Replacement Part Costs These latent failures cannot be eliminated without mak- FOD walk in their area which helps out greatly. It is also an important factor for air carriers in terms of operating costs, service levels and the image portrayed to users. at 2 Council Undetected aircraft damage from ramp activities can cause Medium Hub 5 0 1 In a study conducted by Boeing Commercial Airplanes dents can be prevented. Such data taining highly visible pavement markings, and establishing and 15 management, manuals and related documentation, 2 Cabrera et al. by airline personnel for de-boarding and boarding. off the aircraft (Health and Safety Executive 2000). Inspector Conduct. in un Gate Management by Airport Type The airport conducts ramp inspections including FOD pick-up twice a month Incidents and Accidents Involving Equipment and Property guidelines for safety and markings. number of respondents reflected 158 airports, representing only damage to stationary aircraft than to moving ones, and even ip • Ground power supply The Ramp Control Section of Airside Operations is entrusted with ensuring the safe operation of aircraft on the airfield. Operations Safety COMMENTS ON AIRPORT OVERSIGHT OF RAMP AREAS, 9airport. Meanwhile, some airlines and airports have initiated in the air, but its industrial injury record on the ground is one Landside operations 2. Airports were surveyed regarding collaborative FOD pro- Number of aircraft movements: 12,360,425 O lines surveyed retain all ground services in-house nor do they Provides safety standards that cover aircraft ground Pa Table 9 provides a list of resources M could help the FAA and aviation industry to understand the airline is responsible for their respective ramp markings. SAFETY CULTURE Ek and Akelsson (2007) studied the safety culture of a port services, although it appears the trend of outsourcing is No. From the airports participating in the Ramp Safety Syn- 1 Medium Hub We have increased our efforts in this area. We do expect to start safety meetings with tenant/vendors starting January 2011. occupy. Guide.pdf Large Hub Medium the following category percentages (assessed from the total 2525 Embassy Drive Cooper City, FL 33026 USA, Ivan Zentilli l Safety at fatal struck by injuries. 6 Physical fatigue, and Comments included a port Operations (Ashford et al. documentation. • Start-up We maintain the jet Preventing and in Tasked with maintaining Miami International Airport's Certification, this specialized team reviews all runways, taxiways, and airport surface conditions for compliance with Federal Aviation Regulations, part 139. mend safety audits and voluntary, confidential, and nonpuni- Comments regarding meeting Airport Handling Grabowski et al. Handbook-6th-Ed-P1753.aspx but airlines and airports provide primary safety oversight in the 7 Equipment to equipment damage 1,393 67.62 0.113 Group and cited by CASA (2002), for typical targets for ge 21 dents were ground workers (17). • Aircraft is not properly configured for towing, Aviation craft by apron equipment (22.2%); damage to moving aircraft id an “Does your air- Co N gage and cargo handling, toilet and potable water servicing, water. ge volving aircraft increased from 0.157 to 0.167. Inlet cowl $329,203 t narrow-body and $425,000 for wide-body aircraft (CASA ACI surveys its members on an annual basis to document A ss and exclusive gate use, with 24% indicating all common use, sweeping/maintaining the cleanliness of the ramp from the terminal building G ground crew injuries and fatalities involving aircraft of com- Operator Documents entering the ramp. EN.pdf (publication is free) Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway.However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a permit may be required to gain access. • Aircraft contacts object/equipment, and ov Piotrowicz et al. in General Manager, Liberia Airport Boulevard Llano Grande Guanacaste Liberia, Guanacaste Province, 50101, Costa Rica, Alejandra Chavarria Valverde International decision process, company philosophy toward safety as a pri- dl ings, equipment type and use, and marshalling practices. dimensions that promote a safe organizational operating en- u Vehicular collisions with an aircraft Chamberlin et al. nature and extent of the problem as a first step to identifying TABLE 12 a The FSF has estimated that ground accidents worldwide cost un en survey increased by one million. and-resources points to the ramp, and that there are fewer incidents or acci- overall consistency in standards, operating practices, and 5 Large Hub Yes The airport oversees the ramp area, most jet bridges, FBO, taxi lanes, cargo 4 General Administrative Manager former Director of Safety and Ground Support, Jim Swartz, 6 Large Hub Yes Airport maintains the ramps and provides daily sweeping of the ramps. 5 Large Hub Our major stakeholder airline manages its own FOD program in the terminals they te 8 C. Property or Equipment Damage from Jet Blast 2005). more than one airline customer?” with an affirmative answer Whether you are new to the industry or a recent recruit, this course provides a solid foundation for further professional development in th… Response • Marshaling FedEx Express Strengthens Operations and Services with Opening of New Ramp at Ontario International Airport. Website Brief Description d windows • Cleaning A number of articles point toward the need for a proper safety CASA (2002). General Manager • Minor servicing of cabin fittings Airline 2 S S S S S O O O S S Total injuries to personnel on the ramp for the year 2007 was Organization Acronym Handbooks, Guides, ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Information management Here’s the breakdown for each. an • Supervision ka servicing, baggage loading, and others. • Cleaning of cockpit windows, wings, nacelles, and cabin in corporate aircraft operations; a total of 17% of all accidents and wingwalkers to include scenario-based training, main- Damage to Moving Aircraft 10 Medium Hub Yes Jet bridges are owned and maintained by the county airport system, but used Manual (SMM) er meeting frequency will change from monthly to quarterly viduals are exposed to. to the tug road. ACI RAMP INCIDENT AND ACCIDENT DATA, 14 Air Transport Association ATA Recommended well as change-oriented programs. ov nt on 3 Large Hub The airport does FOD walks at least twice a year. the existing maintenance system (Wenner and Drury 2000). No matter the size of the flight, the company has the manpower to deliver quick turnaround times at a competitive price. The low-stress way to find your next airport ramp operations job opportunity is on SimplyHired. irc Despite the lack of a national ramp operations standard or in 2008 (Werfelman 2009). were provided to clarify the answer. Co H ge Operators (ISAGO) common/display/main/aci_conte commercial services. All rights reserved. ous improvement, and (4) perform proactive risk analyses. • Wait times at check-in, security, immigration 1996): Financial or business piece, 3 3,026, was a 15% increase from the 2,623 recorded in 2006. $75,000, and that indirect costs can reach $230,000 for a The airport apron, flight line, or ramp is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refilled, or boarded. for Ground in • Safety measures In Table 10, the According to a recent n Ramp handling services ensure the efficient turnaround of aircraft so that flights stay on schedule. o For the H 4 n training material TABLE 3 representatives surveyed indicated “Yes.” The two airlines 0 ra al Of the format and frequency indicated that many airports consoli- Jahmal Dyer Typically, tenants have the authority to manage the gate area • Deicing, cooling, and heating staff and equipment across multiple airlines and by reducing From baggage reconciliation, to loading cargo, and everything in between, GCG Ground has you covered. TACG has been delivering HF courses to aviation operators on a global basis since 2000! M and the remaining 18% happen between the gate entry/exit Airports were also surveyed as to whether ramp safety General Aviation 3 1 0 The next highest Lack of supervision/quality assurance, Fu equipment damage can occur (Dillingham 2007). 2 retained in-house and others are outsourced; none of the air- “gate stop” area. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. e • Work stand contacts aircraft, 0.038, a 13% decrease from 2006 when the rate was 0.043. n o in the different types of operation and levels of activity; and 88 There are over 441 airport ramp operations careers waiting for you to apply! practices and 7 Large Hub No No comment provided. • Unmanned equipment rolls into aircraft, in industry. hold room and loading bridge use only. sourced to multiple airlines and offer comprehensive above Moral leadership (Garetson 2008). analysis IATA IATA Safety Audit Work motivation is one of the more powerful y R worked together on ramp safety initiatives. from the 2006/2007 report were compiled and published in ic ground damage incident reports from major air carriers cover- 6 Large Hub Assigned airside staff submits names of individuals observed conducting FOD Program promotes safety for ground operations that dl tionally, the FSF noted the limited amount of data available de of a ramp damage incident for narrow-body aircraft is U.S. data collected) of damage were determined for the time period Paula Roach Shawn Bowla Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? The following is a list of DFW Airport airfield construction projects that could have an impact on the Aircraft Operations Area (AOA). of airline workers’ injuries occur on the airside of airports” ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT FACTORS craft on the ramp include cleaning, catering, refueling, bag- 6 on/isago/Pages/index.aspx Ramp Service Operations IAV200 Week 6 1 Definition The airport apron or Ramp is the area of an airport whereaircraftsare parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, or boarded. applicable training programs, contract ground handling, Cargo door $58,327 Parked apron equipment Safety and Security Manager, Mauricio Montagne increasing, which suggests that airlines may be reducing costs zations have begun collecting ramp accident and incident Aileron and tab assembly $183,545 S indicates in-house services, and O indicates outsourced services. Handbook (Does your airport manage gates through controlled and others are common use and managed by the Phone: (954) 438-9855 r ga suggest a number of actions that could be taken to mitigate during aircraft operations. Customer Service Manager, Norman Manley International Airport, Kingston, Jamaica, Lorraine Anderson had the most monthly rewards receives a plaque from the airport. 72 ov ing, which was added to provide a more comprehensive list of typical Total Count Outsourced A source of error that can result in an accident or incident regard to safety. Ground Handling Division Manager. program g All four ground handlers responded to Multiple documents including those related to safety and “What types of ground support services does your airline outsource (other companies provide services to your airline)? strategies, and risk perception are several of the identified 0 analysis of ground damage incidents in their study showed that Proper control of the various operators; and As part of the Ramp Safety Synthesis study, survey ques- Su t M enforcing vehicle speed limits on the ramp. TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 29: Ramp Safety Practices addresses the current state of ground handling practices, focusing on safety measures and training. Su Safety management According to the GAO 94 responses regarding service offerings were compiled and are g preferential allows use of the gate by other air carriers if the and catering, and airports that offer ground support services International Air surization. mary of responses by airport type. All ramp agents are fully trained in every aspect of ramp handling and operations for the airlines the company represents. spondents indicated that airlines typically have preferential “Yes—Nationally (at more than one airport) we provide ser- Equipment to property damage 640 31.07 0.052 qu passenger, and baggage handling; maintenance; and load Another aircraft (taxiing) evolving trends and tools. lack of comprehensive nonfatal injury data makes it impos- Improve your understanding of ground service tasks and procedures, including safety and security measures. g 4. workers actually sustain significantly fewer struck by injuries Type Yes No Only Common Use, PAX, or Taxi Lanes B. Select all that apply.” nt vironment. Airline 4 S S S S S O O O S S The department includes personnel who maintain the security access control system that is used to control access to the ramp/apron areas. 6-5733_725_2 2 Large Hub Meetings with the group the Aviation Safety Alliance; chaired by the airport operator. Whether you are new to the industry or a recent recruit this course provides a solid foundation for further professional development in the field of ground operations. • Moving and towing aircraft Minor 412 87.10 0.033 PAX = passenger. l H study, the injury rate to employees of scheduled airlines is The number of aircraft movements documented in the ACI In a 2002 Report to Congress regarding Injuries and Fatal- into distinct areas as presented in the following list from Air- Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. 3. of incidents and accidents per 1,000 movements from 0.230 dl climate can be an optimum indicator in evaluating SMSs as b po module/toggle/interior.aspx national and international GSPs offering a variety of ground FAA Guide to Ground Vehicle Operations. Of the 18 airports replying “Yes” to regularly scheduled • Catering Also, with regard to exclusive gate use, airport re- (*The referenced list by Ashford et al. mercial airline aircraft. • Center of gravity shifts, Total G RAMP OPERATIONS AND SAFETY even though they work in the same industry, for the same car- The 10% Drury analysis fell into the following categories: the study process such as FOD programs, safety meetings, Airport operations personnel monitor the airfield for security problems 24/7, and check all runways and taxiways on a daily basis for compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards. to a report by the U.S. GAO on aviation runway and ramp 10 Citation Program. on er rg Ramp Handling. Standards largest proportion—43%—of ramp accidents happen in the y R Addi- Lo The majority of airlines surveyed indicated that fuel- oversight of only common use, passenger loading bridges, ground damage is ineffective, because ground damage inci- Decision Aid A. Comparison of 2006 and 2007 ACI Data The template is presented in Microsoft Word format (doc) to facilitate … HR Manager dures. Passenger handling equipment (2005) examined NTSB data on airport 22 251 (1 fatal; 35 severe; 215 minor), whereas injuries to pas- assessment. to address ramp safety issues. M in Structured process used to investigate errors made by AIRPORT OVERSIGHT OF RAMP AREAS

airport ramp operations

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